cases monkeypox It is increasing across the United States, and as health officials keep the threat to the general population low, efforts have begun to vaccinate those at risk.
The disease is caused by a virus and was first identified in humans in 1970, according to World Health Organization, is commonly seen in parts of Central and West Africa. Scientists believe it occasionally jumped from animals, and possibly rodents, to humans.
Since May 2022, more than 4,100 confirmed cases of monkeypox — and one death — have been reported in 47 countries across Europe and South America, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In the United States, more than 240 cases of monkeypox were reported in 26 states and the District of Columbia as of Tuesday, The Center for Disease Control says. States that have reported cases include California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Washington.
Earlier this week, the Biden administration began shipping monkeypox tests to commercial laboratories including Aegis Science, Labcorp and Quest Diagnostics to expand testing capabilities.
The illness, which is rare, usually begins with flu-like symptoms, including fever before muscle aches, chills, and fatigue. It can progress to include a rash, often on the face and genitals.
Monkeypox can spread through personal contact with the rash, crusts, or body fluids — and by touching things such as clothing or bedding an infected person has used.
Most people recover from monkeypox within weeks, but the disease is fatal in up to 1 in 10 people. World Health Organization Says.
Who needs the monkeypox vaccine?
Health officials say the people most at risk of developing monkeypox in this outbreak are gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men.
in the UKIn Britain, where there is the largest outbreak of monkeypox outside Africa, vaccinations are now being considered for those most at risk: men who have sex with men who have multiple partners, engage in group sex or attend places where sex takes place in the workplace. A survey of sufferers in the UK found that 96% were gay, bisexual, or had sex with other men.
Center for Disease Control He also recommends vaccinations for laboratory and medical personnel — and any other people — who may be exposed to monkeypox.
What is the Jynneos vaccine?
Jynneos vaccine, approved in 2019 by Food and Drug Administration For the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox in people 18 years of age or older, two doses are required, four weeks apart. The CDC is also investigating a procedure to allow the vaccine to be used in children.
The Jynneos vaccine is safer than alternatives because it is made from a virus related to smallpox and monkeys, but is less harmful. The research that led to its approval found that Jynneos created an immune response similar to that found in the smallpox vaccine. Research data shows that the vaccine is at least 85% effective in preventing monkeypox, according to Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security.
However, it is still unknown to what extent the vaccine protects humans from monkeypox infection. Studies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo found that none of the 1,600 healthcare workers had been vaccinated against advanced monkeypox over a two-year period, Science magazine reported. However, the research did not include a control group and one person who developed monkeypox after the study period.
The Department of Health and Human Services, within its Strategic National Stockpile, has more than 36,000 Jynneos courses and expects to take about 500,000 more this year, according to the Center for Disease Control.
“The truth is we don’t know the effectiveness of any of these monkeypox vaccines,” Ira Longini, a University of Florida biostatistician who advises the World Health Organization, told Science.
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Does the smallpox vaccine protect against monkeypox?
The United States has 100 million doses of the ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine, The Center for Disease Control says. Research from Africa indicates that the vaccine is at least 85% effective in preventing monkeypox, the agency says.
However, the vaccine, which is delivered via multiple holes from a needle or threaded needle rather than the vaccine, can have some side effects, according to Food and Drug Administrationincluding inflammation and swelling of the heart and surrounding tissues, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) and spread of the virus to the rest of the body or to others who come into contact with it.
The vaccine is not from the smallpox virus, but from a smallpox-like virus.
New York City Offers Monkeypox Vaccines, Are There Other States?
The New York City Department of Health and Hospitals is administering vaccinations to those they suspect have been in contact with someone with monkeypox. Section last week Opens a qualified vaccination clinic for all gay, bisexual, and other men who have had sex with men with multiple or unknown sexual partners in the past two weeks.
The agency says other states and local agencies are also working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on immunizations.
The California Department of Public Health has ordered and obtained vaccines from stock to protect against monkeypox, USA TODAY reported in a statement.
The agency said 52 cases have been reported in five counties of the state. “The cases were primarily among gay, bisexual and other men and transgender men who have sex with men,” the statement said. “Monkeypox is transmitted through close and intimate physical contact. Although the risk to the general public is very low, it is important to remember that anyone who has such contact with an infected person can get monkeypox. People with a rash or lesion Unusual skin conditions should contact their healthcare provider for an evaluation.”
Center for Disease Control She recommends calling your healthcare provider if you have any symptoms of monkeypox, even if you don’t think you’ve been in contact with someone who has the disease.
Is there a cure for monkeypox?
Those who develop monkeypox typically develop painful, itchy lesions, which eventually turn crusty and fall off. Those infected begin to feel symptoms seven to 14 days after exposure and can remain contagious for several weeks.
The CDC says the monkeypox and smallpox vaccines, when given within four days of exposure, can prevent the onset of disease — and can reduce symptoms if given up to two weeks after exposure.
However, there is currently no proven cure for monkeypox, according to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. But there are many antiviral medications used to treat smallpox and other conditions that may help patients with monkeypox infection.
The antiviral drug Tecovirimat, which was developed to treat smallpox, is approved for emergency treatment of viruses such as monkeypox.
An antiviral drug, Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous (VIGIV), was developed to treat the side effects of smallpox vaccines, and another antiviral drug cidofovir, used to treat eye infections in AIDS patients, is also available for emergency treatment of monkeypox and similar viruses. Another antiviral drug, Brincidofovir, may be used to treat the disease and research into additional treatments and vaccines continues.
Contributing: Elizabeth Wise, USA Today; Associated Press
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This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: Monkeypox: immunizations for health care workers, who are at risk
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